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The tripartite EU agency providing knowledge to assist in the development of better social, employment and work-related policies. Eurofound provides research, data and analysis on a wide range of social and work-related topics. This information is largely comparative, but also offers country-specific information for each of the 28 EU Member States. Most information is available in English but some has been translated to facilitate access at national level.
Eurofound strives to strengthen the ongoing link between its own work and national policy debates and priorities related to quality of life and work. Increasingly important in this context is the Europe growth and jobs strategy launched inwhich has five headline targets, covering employment through to social inclusion and poverty reduction.
The strategy is implemented in the context of the European Semester process — the EU’s annual cycle of economic policy guidance and surveillance — which ensures that Member States keep their budgetary and economic policies in line with their EU commitments through, in part, National Reform Programmes. These programmes form the basis for the European Commission’s proposals for country-specific recommendations CSRs for each Member State.
The European Semester European Commission: European Semester documents for Italy. The country page gives access to Eurofound’s most recent survey data and news, directly related to Italy:. Life satisfaction Data source: Ability to choose or change methods of work Data source: Possibility to accumulate overtime for days off Data source: Eurofound’s Governing Board represents the social partners and national governments of all Member States, as well as the European Commission.
Other country-specific information may be available in certain areas on demand. Please feel free to contact your country contact at Eurofound for this or any other information at information eurofound. Life satisfaction decreased from 7. Similar negative patterns can also be seen in other indicators about the quality of life.
For instance, the share of people reporting difficulties in making ends meet has increased constantly since the first EQLS in Survey respondents in Italy are also less optimistic than people on average in the EU Work-life balance Based on the three work—life balance indicators in the EQLS, work—life balance in Italy is around or slightly better than the EU average. The Social Cccnl Index has somewhat deteriorated from 2.
This is also higher than the EU28 average of 2. However, trust in people among respondents in Italy has increased from 4. Nevertheless, this is still lower than the mean trust in people inwhich confeesercenti at 5. Quality of public services Quality ratings for seven public commercko. The perceived qualities of the seven public services presented below are lower in Italy in comparison to their EU28 averages.
Living and working in Italy
When looking at the yearly changes, the quality ratings for many services decreased in Italy between and However, since a majority of the ratings have bounced back to the levels. For instance, the perceived quality of health services cvnl from 5. Only the perceived quality of the state pension system in Italy has continued to deteriorate, falling from 5.
This profile describes the key ccnp of working life in Italy. It aims to complement other EurWORK research, by providing the relevant background information on structures, institutions and relevant regulations regarding working life. This includes indicators, data commmercio regulatory systems on the following aspects: The profiles are updated annually. Highlights — Working life in Authors: Developments in working life There were no significant developments in working life in Italy in Statutory provisions concerning the scope and interaction between the level of collective bargaining remained largely untouched, while the largest unions are currently prosecuting the General Confederation of Italian Industry Confindustria for renewing rules on the industrial relations system after having finalised them with representatives of SMEs in and The social dialogue climate did not feature any major conflicts, unlike in when the Jobs Act was implemented.
Although there were disagreements between trade unions, especially the Italian General Confederation of Labour CGILand the government over protection for self-employed and non-standard workers and changes to the rules on pensions. Tensions came to a head in June when the ruling party, the Democratic Party PDcircumvented a referendum organised by the CGIL on voucher-based workby repealing provisions subject to the referendum intended to abrogate it, and introducing unilaterally a new, albeit more stringent, regulation.
However, some protection has been introduced for self-employed workerssuch as limiting the possibility to introduce unfair clauses in contracts by the clients, and reintroducing minimum levels of pay to be observed by some sections for example banks, insurance companies and large organisation.
Other developments worth noting were those addressing precarious or low-paid jobs: In general, the overall approach to labour law and labour market policies remains largely inspired by neoliberalism, following the Biagi reforms confesecenti the Jobs Act.
Sanctions against unfair dismissals have been markedly reduced for commetcio hired from onwards, a measure intended to incentivise the creation of permanent jobs, although fixed-term contracts and temporary agency work have also been largely liberalised. Instead, the creation of permanent jobs has been fuelled through the intervention of the state, mainly by means of subsidises for open-ended contracts entered by private employers.
Background Economic and labour market context Between andthere was confeserdenti increase 1. Unemployment rates continued to increase for all categories, except youth unemployment, which fell marginally by 0. Employment rates increased in the five years considered. Female employment increased 2. Youth employment decreased slightly Relationships between employers and employees are regulated in considerable detail by Italian law and — where applicable — by the relevant National Collective Bargaining Agreement NCBAwhich leaves only a few matters to be settled by individual negotiations and agreements.
One of the most significant laws governing labour relationships is Act no. Following the adoption of the Jobs Act, the government enacted four legislative decrees.
It also envisages interventions to reduce the administrative burden on firms and to promote work—life reconciliation. On 10 Junethe Council of Ministers also adopted a decree aimed at modifying the acts implementing the Jobs Act. In relation to JACode, the newly adopted remedial act sets forth full traceability of job vouchers.
The Italian industrial relations framework has undergone numerous changes in recent years, moving towards an increasingly important role for decentralised bargaining and a closer link between wages and productivity. These developments, supported and incentivised by the government, have often torn unions apart, with the Italian Cojmercio Confederation of Work CGIL pointing to the risk of deconstruction of collectively agreed rules.
At the moment, national-level agreements remain the main source of regulation. Recently, new paritarian institutions have been created with the aim of better supporting both workers and employers when production levels decrease and working activity must be suspended or reduced totally in some cases.
Even though TU is not applicable to SMEs, it may trigger, in coming years, several changes within the evolving Italian industrial relations system.
In recent months, the parties concerned have shifted from informal discussions to the implementation phase. This change is apparent from the high number of agreements and protocols concluded between the parties, including the renewal of public-sector employment contracts and consensus achieved on the need to reform the pension system.
They are interlocking parts in a multilevel system of governance that includes the European, national, sectoral, regional provincial or local and company levels. This section looks into the main actors and institutions and their role in Italy.
In some rare and particular cases that is, leading businesses or partly state-owned companiesthe government itself tries to foster, mediate, and support social dialogue. The year was undoubtedly fraught with reforms, many of which involved both the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies, and the Ministry of Economy and Finance which provide for financial resources to sustain new labour provisions. ANPAL is supposed to perform a range of tasks: The first and only provision, untilwas contained in Article 39 of the Italian Constitution, which sets forth a single criterion based on the number of associates.
These unions can form Company Works Councils Rappresentanze sindacali aziendaliRSAwhich consist of union delegates in companies with more than 15 employees, in the industry or trade sector. Moreover, TU states that firm-level agreements are binding if signed by the majority of RSU members or by the RSA receiving the majority of proxies from employees. Employees enjoy the constitutionally enshrined right to organise unions and to strike.
Labour unions are usually set up on an industry or trade-wide basis, with the various local unions forming a national body. A de facto extension of such collective bargaining is set out by labour courts. Either type of council can exercise the right to be informed and consulted mainly in the following cases: The trend shows a progressive shift in terms of strength and importance from national-level union activity to the decentralised level, in which special provisions are set for employers and employees.
Data are released directly by trade unions or by their research centres. In the past years, trade unions intensified cooperation, in particular at cross-sectoral level, with a view to tackling problems related to the economic crisis. These organisations will sit with other social partners to negotiate or renew the relevant NCBA.
A further factor is the thriving of interorganisational innovations, particularly in the field of SME associations paritarian institutions providing their members with welfare and services. CNEL is managed by 64 board members, nominated every five years.
Specifically, 10 members are appointed directly by the President of the Republic: However, following a referendum held in Decemberthe reform was rejected. CNEL has the right to initiate legislation and it carries out many important functions such as drafting reports, opinions and surveys upon request of Parliament, Government or Regions on draft acts or on relevant issues concerning economic and social policies.
Paritarian institutions are set up jointly by employers and trade unions with the aim of providing their members with welfare and services.
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These institutions have become increasingly important in recent years. They are managed jointly by social partners, commecrio have an internal organisational structure consisting of an assembly, an executive board, a president, an executive director, and a monitoring committee. These administrative bodies are usually appointed by social partners every three or four years.
Paritarian institutions deal with several issues, such as wages, skills, training, working time, and unemployment scheme benefits.
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They can be classified into institutional funds and non-institutional funds. Paritarian institutions can be considered conresercenti institutional funds inasmuch as the law sets out specific goals for collective bargaining to be pursued through funds, or alternatively specific schemes to be implemented through them; this category includes pension funds, private healthcare funds, unemployment funds, and vocational training funds.
Non-institutional funds are those that pursue goals or implement schemes that are self-regulated by collective bargaining. The operational branch of ANPAL will be made up of public employment services PES tasked with promoting training and work experience, providing job-seekers with basic and specialised guidance, as well as with support in job searches.
Jobless people will be profiled through an online tool, and will sign a personalised service agreement contratto di servizio with PES. Research, ocmmercio activities to government, Regions, production of periodic reports, studies and surveys on labour market or collective bargaining; monitoring of NCBAs. Research, coordination, and monitoring of local bilateral bodies in the craft sector that are active in the fields of training, income support, welfare provision, and safety at work.